Yesterday we began a little lesson in photography terms; a vocabulary lesson if you will. As you recall we numbered our pages from 1 to 40 but only filled in the first 20 terms. It’s time now to open those Big Chief tablets, and sharpen those no. 2’s once again because here we go with the second half of our list.
21. EXIF – Exchangeable Image File Format – embedded information about the camera used, time and date the image was taken, and exposure information such as shutter speed and ISO setting for each image. Most photo editing and graphics programs can read this information. [Also called metadata.]
22. Exposure – the amount of light that hits the sensor. The exposure is controlled by the shutter speed, aperture, and ISO.
23. Fixed Aperture – this means that the aperture remains constant regardless of the lens’ focal length. The Canon “L” series lenses have a constant fixed aperture when zooming.
24. Focal Length – the lens’ angle of view. Such as wide angle, standard or telephoto. Focal lengths are usually specified in millimetres (mm).
25. Histogram – a histogram is a bar graph tool that maps out brightness values in a digital image they are used to give you information about your exposure.
26. Hot Shoe – the flash connector found on the top of the camera that lets you attach an external flash.
27. IS – Image Stabilization – an optical or digital system built into a lens for removing or reducing camera movement, most effective with telephoto or telephoto zoom lenses. IS can be found in many of Canon’s mid-range and “L” series lenses .
28. ISO – International Standards Organization – the speed or light sensitivity of a captured image is rated by ISO numbers such as 100, 400, 800 etc. The higher the number, the more sensitive to light it is. Higher speeds usually bring on more electronic “noise” so the image becomes grainier.
29. Megapixel – the CCD or CMOS resolution of one million pixels. Digital cameras are commonly rated by megapixels. To get the total pixel count you would multiply the horizontal resolution by the vertical resolution.
30. Metering – calculating the exposure from the current light conditions.
31. Noise – relates to pixels in your image that were misinterpreted. This normally occurs when you shoot a longer exposure or when using a higher ISO setting. It appears as a grainy texture in your image; like tiny dots that don’t belong there.
32. Prime Lens – a lens that has just one focal length.
33. RAW – RAW files store the unprocessed image directly from the camera’s sensor to the memory card without the compromising qualities of a JPEG. RAW files, which contain much more information than JPEG, must be opened and initial processing done with special software before they can be viewed or printed.
34. Sensor – the part inside the DSLR that turns the incoming light into digital data. It’s the digital equivalent of film.
35. Shutter – the device that opens and closes to let light hit the image sensor.
36. Viewfinder – the tiny “window” on the back of the camera that you look through to compose an image.
37. Vignetting – this term describes the darkening of the outer edges, mainly in the corners, of the image. This is more noticeable when the zoom lens is in full wide-angle. It is also sometimes used as a special effect in the photo editing.
38. White Balance – the adjustment of the brightness of colors in an image, so that the brightest object in the image appears white.
39. Wide-Angle Lens – a lens that has a shorter focal length and a wider field of view than a normal lens.
40. Zoom Lens – a variable focal length lens. Zoom lenses include [for example] 24-70mm, 70-200mm and 100-400mm.
Is that every photography term out there? No. Not by any stretch of the imagination but it’s a good start; so study up kids. There could be a pop quiz later.